Dandruff is the term given to the skin that sheds off from the scalp after getting dried up. It is visible in the form of white flakes and irritation occurs in some cases. It is not a disease and it occurs due to various reasons.
There are two types of dandruff, namely Seborrhea and Pityriasis-capitis. Seborrhea dermatitis is the type in which white and dry flakes of dandruff that falls on your shoulder. It is caused due to a dry scalp. The latter is often formed on oily scalp. They occur in the form of thick, crusted and oily type.
The cause of dandruff is yet not proven scientifically. But some of the factors are include diet, environmental conditions etc. Food and our diet play a significant role in dandruff formation. Some types of foods promote its formation while certain others restrict it. Food containing excess yeast can aid dandruff growth while eating a lot of fruits and vegetables can prevent dandruff formation. Keeping your body well hydrated by drinking lots of water can also prevent dandruff formation.
Dandruff is not a contagious disease and there is nothing to worry about it. Effective treatments are there to get rid off it. In mild cases, using a shampoo to clean the hair and scalp is found effective. Wash your hair daily using a cleansing shampoo. But ii depends on the amount of dandruff and dry scalp present on the head. In some severe cases, using a specialized anti-dandruff shampoo can be effective. Make sure not to use shampoo excessively, as they can make the scalp even drier.
If the above treatment is not effective, then it means that you need a specialized treatment. In this case, consult a dermatologist for his prescription. The prescription may vary from person to person depending on the nature of the scalp and dandruff. The one that is effective in your case may not be effective for others.